Wheat is a common term for several types of plants, botanically united in Triticum genus, representatives of Graminae family. Wheat is a basic cereal crop that is used for making bread. It is originally grown in the Fertile Crescent region, located in the Near East, but it is gradually spread worldwide. Yearly 2,500 billion decares are planted with wheat.
Wheat is a significant factor enabling the emergence of highly urbanized societies at the start of civilization because it was one of the first crops that could be easily cultivated on a large scale, and had the additional advantage of yielding a harvest that provides long-term storage.
Wheat is a concentrated source of protein in human food as it is higher in proteins in comparison with corn, rice and the other congeneric crops. It is considered that about 70% of the world population has wheat bread. Wheat germs are important source of vitamins, minerals and proteins. They are also used in a number of high-class cookery meals.
Today the world biggest wheat producers are the Russian Federation, the USA, China, India, France and Canada.
In Bulgaria wheat is a major field crop and it is grown on an area of 10 to 12 million decares. The most favourable conditions for growing wheat are in Dobrudzha, followed by the rest plain regions in North Bulgaria.