orn (Zea mays) is a type of angiospermous plant belonging to the Gramineae family (Poaceae). It is a farming crop of great importance as it is used for grain, silage and green fodder. Corn was domesticated by the indigenous people in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. Later, along central and South Mexico Aztecs and Mayans cultivated it in numerous varieties used for food and other applications. In the course of time the cultivated corn spread into North and South America as it covers large areas on both continents between 1700 and 1250 BC. Most great and developed human cultures in the region developed trade network based on certain varieties of corn surplus. After the colonization of America in the late XV and the early XVI centuries, explorers and traders carried corn to Europe and later on they introduced it to other cultures around the world as a part of trade. At present, in XXI century, corn is widely spread all over the world mainly because of its ability to grow in diverse climates. It is a staple food in some countries in Latin America and Africa.
Over 270 million tonnes of corn grain is produced in the USA. 67% of the world corn production belongs to the USA, China, Brazil and Mexico.
In Bulgaria corn is grown on an area of 3-4 million decares.
Corn is a crop of wide use of its final product – the grain. It is of utmost importance as livestock feed. Corn is popular as “the queen of the fields” due to its high productivity and multilateral usage.
In food processing industry starch, dextrin, glucose and glucose syrup are produced from corn. Margarine is obtained from corn oil. It is a raw material for production of alcohol and spirits, paper, synthetic fibres and various medicines. There is no other farming plant as corn in Bulgaria which such a various number of products are obtained from.